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GLIDERS
Feathertail Glider
Greater Glider
Mahogany Glider
Squirrel Glider
Sugar Glider
Yellow-bellied Glider
GREATER GLIDER

Greater Glider
Photo © Steve Parish Publishing

(Petauroides volans)

The greater glider is the largest of the glider species in Australia. This species is also the most variable in their colouration. The scientific name for the greater glider means flying petaurus-like animal.

Greater gliders have adapted to feed almost exclusively on eucalyptus leaves, leading to an enlarged caecum that assists in breaking down the cellulose – much like the koala. Interestingly, despite being proportionally long, the tail is not prehensile.  

Greater gliders can glide up to 100 metres and change direction up to 90 degrees as well. They are known to use a large number of hollows within the home range, and they can use between 2-18 different hollows. They do not appear to build a nest as such, however occasionally there is a lining of leaves. 

Description

Greater Gliders have highly varied colouration ranging from a light grey almost white colour to a very a dark sooty grey. The northern greater glider is uniform brown above with a pale belly.

These gliders have a very long furry tail, and the most distinct feature is their large furry ears (teddy-bear ears).

Body measurements:

  • Head-body length, 350-460 mm
  • Tail length, 450-600 mm
  • Weight, 900-1700 grams.

The gliding membrane stretches from elbow to ankle.

Signs

Considered silent and is rarely heard, however will produce a grunt or hiss when threatened. Large scratches on trees from landing are also a sign to look for. Droppings are about the size and shape of a slightly flatten pea (5-10 mm). Eyes shine in an intense white colour when spotlighted and in some rare populations the shine is a pale red colour.


Greater Glider
Photo © Steve Parish Publishing

Habitat

  • Wide range of habitats including tall open woodland, eucalypt forests and low woodlands
  • They do not occur in rainforests
  • They prefer habitats that are in older forests and have large number of hollows.

Ecology

Life History

Generally greater gliders are regarded as a solitary however males and females will share a den at the onset of breeding.  Males usually use more den sites then females and the den sites are usually located in the centre of their home range.

Breeding

Mating occurs between March and June. Births occur between April and June, with only 1 young per litter. Greater gliders only produce 1 litter per year, and they can live up to 15 years.

Young leaves the pouch at 3-4 months. Following this for the next 3 months they are either left at the nest or ride on the mother’s back except during glides. Young are independent at 8-10 months.

Diet

The Greater Glider feeds mainly on eucalypt leaves.

  • They prefer young leaves due to their high levels of nitrogen and low levels of fibre
  • They prefer leaves from the ribbon, mountain and narrow-leaved peppermint eucalypt tree
  • They are known to feed on the buds and flowers of eucalypts.

They are also known to feed on the young cones of the radiata pine tree, phyllodes of acacia plants and even mistletoe.

Home Range

Generally the home range for the greater glider is between 0.7-3 hectares and tends to have a population density of 0.01-5 individuals per hectare.  The home ranges of females can overlap with males and females however for the males the home ranges never overlap.

Natural predators in their range are large owl species, spotted tail quolls, goannas, and carpet pythons.

Distribution

The greater glider occurs down the east coast of Australia in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. It does not occur in the far north region of Queensland.

Threats

  • Feral species such as dogs, cats, and foxes
  • Habitat destruction and fragmentation
  • Barbed wire fences.

Status

  • Queensland: Least Concern
  • National: not listed
  • IUCN: Least Concern.

Mitigation Practices

  • Installation of nest boxes
  • Locking up domestic pets
  • Removal of barbed wire fences.

Bibliography

  • Comport, S. S., Ward, S.J., and Foley, W.J. (1996). Home ranges, time budgets and food tree use in a high density tropical population of greater glider, Petauroides volans minor (Pseudocheiridae: Marsupialia). Wildlife Research 23: 401-419.
  • Cunningham, R.B., Pope, M.L., and Lindenmayer, D.B. (2004). Patch use by the greater glider (Petauroides volans) in fragmented forest ecosystem. III. Night-time use of trees. Wildlife Research, 31: 579-585.
  • Eyre, T.J. (2006). Regional habitat selection of large gliding possums at forest stand and landscape scales in southern Queensland, Australia I. Greater glider (Petauroides volans). Forest Ecology and Management.
  • Foley, W.J, Kehl, J.C, Nagy, K.A, Kaplan, I.R, Borsboom, A.C. (1990). Energy and Water Metabolism in Free-Living Greater Gliders, Petauroides-Volans. Australian Journal of Zoology.
  • Lindenmayer, D.B., Pope, M.L., and Cunningham, R.B. (2004). Patch use by the greater glider (Petauroides volans) in a fragmented forest ecosystem. II. Characteristics of den trees and preliminary data on den-use patterns. Wildlife Research 31: 569-577.
  • Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Donnelly, C.F., Incoll, R.D., Pope, M.L., Tribolet, C.R., Viggers, K.L., and Welsh, A.H. (2001). How effective is spotlighting for detecting the greater glider (Petauroides volans)? 28: 105-109.
  • Pope, M.L, Lindenmayer, D.B, Cunningham, R.B. (2004). Patch use by the greater glider (Petauroides voalns) in a fragmented forest ecosystem. I. Home range size and movements. Australian Wildlife Research.
  • Smith, G.C, Mathieson, M. and Hogan, L. (2007). Home range and habitat use of a low-density population of greater gliders, Petauroides volans (Pseudocheiridae: Marsupialia), in a hollow-limiting environment. Australian Wildlife Research.